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How So Stem Cells Work?

How do stem cells work?

As the building blocks for all organs in the body, stem cells can be used in a growing number of medical treatments. Today, the list includes blood cancers, metabolic disorders, solid tumours, immune disorders and blood disorders.

Tomorrow, current research is suggesting, we will be able use stem cells to treat a much larger range of conditions including brain damage, cancer, spinal cord injury, heart damage, faulty blood-cell formation (haematopoiesis), baldness, wound healing and infertility.

About Haematopoietic and Mesenchymal stem cells

In fact, there are three main types of stem cells in cord blood and tissue:

• Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), from umbilical blood, which can produce red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

• Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), from umbilical tissue, which can produce connective tissue forming cells, fat forming cells, tendon/ligament forming cells, nerve forming cells, muscle forming cells, cartilage forming cells, and bone forming cells

 

• Very small embryonic like stem cells (VSELs), found in cord blood a more recently discovered form of stem cell, with exciting possibilities for regenerative therapy

All three may be used in stem cell treatments and so increase the number of therapies available to your child.

Stem Cell Cord Blood Banking.....

Cord Blood Banking

Understanding cord blood banking

Umbilical cord blood stem cells are your baby’s lifeline to future medical treatments. Stored safely in a cord blood bank, they’re available on-demand when your child needs treatment. Cord blood stem cell treatment isn’t science fiction. It’s here now. Cord blood stem cells - just like those Cells4Life collects for your child - have already been used in more than 30,000 medical treatments worldwide for nearly 80 diseases. As time goes by, more and more treatments are becoming viable as medical research progresses worldwide.

The Cells4Life bio-bank

A bio-bank stores blood and tissue cells safely for future use. The Cells4Life bio-bank stores more cord blood and tissue samples from the UK than any other. We are also the only UK bio-bank to offer whole blood storage from the umbilical cord. Storing your baby’s umbilical blood with us preserves the maximum range of cell types, and ensures no future opportunities for treatment are wasted. If you choose a bio-bank that only stores cord blood in a reduced volume, the treatments your child could benefit from are limited to illnesses such as leukaemia.

Preserving umbilical cord blood and tissue for the future

Cells4Life’s advanced cryopreservation techniques offer an initial 25 years of storage, followed by the option of extending the period further. We’re happy to offer these storage periods as research shows that umbilical cord blood and tissue can still be used after considerably longer periods – many claim that cryogenic storage is effectively infinite.

This is why sexing before 16wks+3days is unreliable.

This is why sexing before 16wks+3days is unreliable.
As you can see each baby has what looks like a penis. 
The "penis" of the boy points up and the "Clitoris" of the girl points down.
The reason sexing is only 50% reliable is that it depends
on the angle of babies bottom and the position baby is in,
also the skill of the sonographer when interpreting the image.

Even at 16+wks there are factors which can cause us to mistake the sex.
Little girls can have swollen labia which can look like boy bits.
Little boys can have undescended testicals making them look like girls.

When sexing your baby we take care to see babies sex from as many angles
as possible and only tell you when we have seen the positive sign for each sex.
When coming for a sexing scan please make sure you have a meal 2+hrs before
scan time then 10mins before something nice & sweet and sugary.
Really important that you arrive with a full bladder this will push baby up and 
out of your lower pelvis. Please bring your hospital notes.
If baby is in a bad position or has legs pushed together we may send you out
for a walk.

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Private pregnancy clinic offering 4D scan services

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50 Shades of Grey...Baby Boom....

If you've read it, you know what's going to happen next...

With the success of E L James best seller, the UK and most of the world are heading for a massive baby boom thanks to this amazing trilogy..

Husbands and partners that we haven't so much as looked at in months turn into our very own personal Christian Grey...

Dont forget to see what he looks like, come with your friends and family and enjoy the miracle of life..

Sexing scans from 16 weeks and 3 days..From £45

4D packages from £75..Best time between 25-30 weeks..

To book please call 0115 8776945..

4D ULTRASOUND FACT SHEET

4D ULTRASOUND FACT SHEET

 For good clear imaging we need a pool of amniotic fluid around babies face. To get the very best 4D images it’s important that your baby is in a face upward position However the images of your baby’s face will be affected by anything that blocks or reduces the sound waves or causes a shadow, the umbilical cord, baby’s hands and feet. Babies position also plays a large part in the clarity of the images. If baby is cuddled in to the wall of the womb or placenta your imaging will be hazy. We can try to encourage movement by asking you to roll onto your side, sometimes taking a walk around is also needed. Our policy is to try our best for you on the day, unfortunately this means we may over run on our scan times. Please be patient every client is very important to us.

Our Studio is dedicated to 3D 4D scans and as such we do not do any diagnostic scans. However all our sonographers are fully trained in clinical & diagnostic ultrasound and if they feel their could be a problem with baby we will explain as fully as we are able and speak to your midwife with your permission.

All 4D scans start in conventional 2D before switching to 4D. The 2D image show us baby’s position to obtain the best images in 4D. Sexing is always done in 2D.

Switching back and forth between 2D and 4D will happen many times during your scan as the sonographer tries to obtain the best 4D images for you.

Babies can get up to some amazing things in the womb. You may have seen these if you have had a 4D scan in the past. Unfortunately a baby’s performance is never guaranteed and so smiling, yawning, sticking the tongue out. Cannot always be seen in 4D. Sometimes babies just like sleeping.

If your baby is facing towards your back or positioned deep in your pelvis we may only see the back of your baby’s head in 4D. Breach babies are also difficult to scan, as they tend to have both legs up in front of their face. Fizzy drinks chocolate or sweets are sometimes used to stimulate your baby so that they move into a better position, so please bring these along to your 4D scan appointment

Rh negative or Rh positive?

Each person's blood is one of four major types: A, B, AB, or O. Blood types are determined by the types of antigens on the blood cells. Antigens are proteins on the surface of blood cells that can cause a response from the immune system. The Rh factor is a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people who have the Rh factor are Rh-positive. Those who do not have the Rh factor are Rh-negative.

As part of your antenatal care, you will have blood tests to find out your blood type. If your blood lacks the Rh antigen, it is called Rh-negative. If it has the antigen, it is called Rh-positive.

When the mother is Rh-negative and the father is Rh-positive, the fetus can inherit the Rh factor from the father. This makes the fetus Rh-positive too. Problems can arise when the fetus's blood has the Rh factor and the mother's blood does not.

If you are Rh-negative, you may develop antibodies to an Rh-positive baby. If a small amount of the baby's blood mixes with your blood, which often happens, your body may respond as if it were allergic to the baby. Your body may make antibodies to the Rh antigens in the baby's blood. This means you have become sensitised and your antibodies can cross the placenta and attack your baby's blood. They break down the fetus's red blood cells and produce anemia. This condition is called hemolytic disease or hemolytic anemia. It can become severe enough to cause serious illness, brain damage, or even death in the fetus or newborn.    

What happens if antibodies develop?

Once a woman develops antibodies, RhIg treatment does not help. A mother who is Rh sensitised will be checked during her pregnancy to see if the fetus is developing the condition.

The baby may be delivered on time, followed by a blood transfusion for the baby that will replace the diseased blood cells with healthy blood.

For more severe cases, the baby may be delivered early or given transfusions while in the mother's uterus.    

Compiled using information from the following sources:

Mayo Clinic Complete Book of Pregnancy & Babys First Year. Johnson, Robert V., M.D., et al, Ch. 11.

Danforths Obstetrics and Gynaecology Ninth Ed. Scott, James R., et al, Ch. 18

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Best time for a 3D 4D Baby bonding scan.

At 16-20 wks you are still able to see the baby’s complete body, baby is very tiny,  just skin on bone we wouldn’t recommend having a full 3D/4D this early . As the baby grows you become limited on the amount of the baby that you can see. At 21-24 weeks the baby is just starting to form their fat and their full facial features. This is still a great time to see the growth progress of your little one. At 25 to 27 wks baby has put on some fat and we start to get good face and body images plus baby is still very active, when you get closer to 28-30 weeks we can see baby has chubby chops and has started to look like he/she will at delivery.

 We can never guarantee full face imaging as baby is in charge and we can only see what ever baby allows, some are real show-offs and demand centre stage others are shy covering their faces with hands and feet, then we have the little cuddle bums they find a comfy corner to snuggle into while being rocked to the rhythm of mummy. With that being said, the mothers body type and babies positioning also plays a role, in obtaining  good imaging. The all around best time to come in will be 25-30 weeks, when baby is a good size and still has room to move freely. As the baby nears 32 plus weeks, the baby starts to run low on room and fluid. We can and do scan up to 36wks with good results, but wouldn’t recommend you waiting this long, as at this time its very difficult if babies not in a good position.

The importance of good Amniotic Fluid

            3D 4D ULTRASOUND BABY BONDING SCANS 

 We recommend that you drink 2-3 extra glasses of water/fluid every day for the week before your ultrasound scan. This will help keep you well HYDRATED.

3/4D ultrasound scans need a good amount of amniotic fluid around baby to get good imaging.

 

  Babies position

Baby’s position is very important in obtaining good 3/4D imaging. We need to be able to see a good clear profile in 2D ultrasound to get full face imaging in 3/4D.

If baby has any thing in front of their face it will show up in 3/4D ultrasound imaging.

Most babies have a hand up to their face, also wherever there’s fluid we see umbilical cord, which floats around baby through out your pregnancy.

Breach babies are much harder to scan as their legs naturally come up and over their heads. 

 Your BMI could also play an important role in the clarity of your scan.

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

Could Acupuncture Work Better Than Medications for Treating Colic in Babies

by Vimala McClure founder of the International Association of Infant Massage

Imagine you have just been through a very traumatic experience, something that really disturbed you deeply. You feel yourself on the verge of tears and unable to relax or concentrate, and you go to your spouse or a friend for help. You begin to talk about what happened to you and how you’re feeling about it.

After a moment of sympathy your friend begins to shush you, saying, “There, there, never mind. Please don’t cry. I can’t stand it when you cry. Come on, smile for me now. let me get you something to eat. Maybe you should go to a doctor.” You will probably dry your tears and internalize your pain in order to preserve this relationship and because your friend’s responses have told you it is not safe to be yourself in her presence.

Now imagine yourself in the same situation, with a different response from your friend. You begin to talk about what happened to you and how you’re feeling about it. Your friend looks at you eye-to-eye. She leans forward and holds your hand. “I’m here for you, tell me all about it. I can see you’re really hurting, and I want you to know that I love you and I want to help you through this.”

She puts her arms around you and you relax into deep sobs in the safety of her presence. You ramble on, sometimes incoherently, and she’s there, saying, “Tell me more. And then what happened? That must have been so painful for you.” You feel her genuine support and that trust enables you to really unload and, finally, come back to your center again. Your relationship with her is stronger; she feels good for having been there for you, and you are better able to go on toward healthy functioning.

When a baby cries for a physical reason, something needs to be actively done about the cry. If the cry is for an emotional reason, there are different ways to approach this. Within her article, Vimala suggests a three-step process, which is only one of several approaches.
1. Take a long, slow, deep breath and relax.
2. Clear all thoughts.
3. Connect with the baby, eye to eye if possible.
If the baby avoids eye contact, place their hands gently but firmly on their baby’s body and make a connect through their hands, saying that they would like to hear what baby has to say.

Stay with the baby, be relaxed and receptive, and listen and respond by observing your baby’s body language. Watch your baby’s mouth and eyes. When you are sure that your baby feels heard and has said most of what was needed to be said, then offer your comfort by rocking, walking, or patting to help get organized again. Invariably, a baby who feels heard will sleep more deeply afterward and will trust.

When we truly listen to our infants, we are fulfilling all of their psychological needs. The underlying message is, “You are worthy of respect. You are valuable just the way you are.” The baby is driven to agree, and grows in confidence, feeling a place in the world. The baby’s sensory receptors take this message in and the whole body relaxes. Vimala ends with:

The chalice of this infant’s heart is filled to overflowing, and as she grows she will seek opportunities to share her love with others. And how will she do this? By following the model she has been given. She will be there for others in the way her caregivers have been there for her. What a lovely, healthy cycle!

Could Acupuncture Work Better Than Medications for Treating Colic in Babies?

Tags : Controlled crying, Crying Baby, Soothe baby crying, stop my baby crying, vimala mcclure, What Babies Need

How 3D 4D Ultrasound scans work.

Most ultrasounds are routinely performed using conventional (2D) scanning. This is where the ultrasound beam scans through a thin slice of the woman’s body or the baby, and shows the image on a screen in 2 dimensions only. This type of ultrasound provides most of the clinically relevant information to the doctor.

In recent years, 3D still images and 4D moving imaging ultrasounds have become increasingly popular and readily available. With 3D ultrasound, a series of thin 2D slices is digitally reconstructed to give more life-like images. With 4D ultrasound, the added dimension is time, so that the 3D images appear to be moving in real time. The 3D/4D image usually appears a golden colour on the ultrasound screen, as this colour is easy for patients to look at and highlights features on the baby.

3D/4D ultrasound uses the same ultrasound beams as the conventional 2D ultrasound, with extra processing performed by the ultrasound machine computer. 3D/4D ultrasound is just as safe as conventional 2D scanning, with no evidence that it harms you or your baby.

There is some diagnostic role for 3D/4D ultrasound in obstetrics, although this is currently limited to a few particular conditions,

For example, parents may better understand an abnormality like cleft lip when they see their baby in a 3D image, for the image appears more life-like.

Usually such conditions are first assessed in detail with the conventional 2D ultrasound.

ULTRASOUND DATING SCAN

   

The Crown-rump Length

This measurement can be made between 7 to 13 weeks and gives very accurate estimation of the gestational age. Dating with the CRL can be within 3-4 days of the last menstrual period. An important point to note is that when the due date has been set by an accurately measured CRL, it should not be changed by a subsequent scan.

The Biparietal Diameter

The diameter between the 2 sides of the head. This is measured after 13 weeks. It increases from about 2.4 cm at 13 weeks to about 9.5 cm at term. Different babies of the same weight can have different head size; therefore dating in the later part of pregnancy is generally considered unreliable. Dating using the BPD should be done as early as is feasible.

 The Femur Length

Measures the longest bone in the body and reflects the longitudinal growth of the fetus. Its usefulness is similar to the BPD. It increases from about 1.5 cm at 14 weeks to about 7.8 cm at term. Similar to the BPD, dating using the FL should be done as early as is feasible.

The Abdominal Circumference

The single most important measurement to make in late pregnancy. It reflects more of fetal size and weight rather than age. Serial measurements are useful in monitoring the growth of the fetus.

Amniotic Fluid, Umbilical Cord

Amniotic Fluid

Attached to placenta is the membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo. This sac is called the amnion. It grows and begins to fill, mainly with water, around two weeks after fertilization. This liquid is called Amniotic fluid, it allows the baby to move freely, without the walls of the uterus being too tight against its body. Buoyancy is also provided here for comfort. After a further 10 weeks the liquid contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and phospholipids, urea and electrolytes, all which aid in the growth of baby. In the late stages of gestation much of the amniotic fluid consists of babies urine. The baby swallows the fluid and then wees it out to prepare its digestive organs for use after birth. The baby also "breathes" the fluid to aid in lung growth and development.

As with too little fluid, too much fluid or polyhydramnios, can be a cause or an indicator of problems for the mother and baby. Polyhydramnios is a predisposing risk factor for cord prolapse and is sometimes a side effect of a macrosomic pregnancy. In both cases, however, the majority of pregnancies proceed normally and the baby is born healthy.

Umbilical Cord

This is the life support for a growing embryo. The umbilical cord stretches between the placenta and the baby. This cord contains the umbilical arteries and vein. The umbilical cord forms by week 5 of conception. The cord can be 22 to 36 inches long and may have the appearance of a coil. The umbilical cord is very rich in stem cells and is often used for parents who choose to store their stem cells in a blood bank or donate it to a blood bank. These stem cells can be used to treat over 45 disorders and is an alternative from extracting the stem cells from a donor.

During your ultrasound scan you may see that the cord is around baby, we see this in over 80% of scans and it is nothing to be worried about.

The placenta

The placenta is a structure that develops inside the uterus during pregnancy. It forms from the same cells as the embryo and acts as an unborn baby’s life-support system. One side of the placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus and connects to the mother’s blood supply. The other side connects the baby to the placenta through the umbilical cord.

The placenta supplies the baby with nutrients and oxygen from the mother’s blood. It also removes waste from the baby’s blood and puts it into the mother’s blood. The mother’s kidneys dispose of the waste. We check postion of the placenta during your ultrasound scan to ensure its not low lying or covering the way out. 

The placenta also produces hormones that play a role in starting labour and help protect the baby from infections and harmful substances. After a woman gives birth, the placenta’s job is done. It comes out after the baby is born and is called the afterbirth.

The mature placenta is flat and shaped like a circle. It weighs about 1 pound. But sometimes the placenta:

  • ·                                           Is not formed correctly
  • ·                                           Is not in the right place in the uterus
  • ·                                           Does not work correctly

These kinds of placental problems are some of the most common complications of the second half of pregnancy. 

Why it is harmful to smoke during pregnancy

Why it is harmful to smoke during pregnancy

A baby in the womb gets everything from its mother. Nutrients and oxygen come via the placenta and umbilical cord. Smoking not only exposes the baby to toxins in tobacco smoke, but it also damages placental function.

When a person smokes, some of the oxygen in their blood is replaced by carbon monoxide. If a pregnant woman smokes, her blood and therefore her child's blood will contain less oxygen than normal. This can cause the babies heart rate to rise as baby struggles to get enough oxygen. Some times we can see the damage to the placenta with ultrasound scanning.

The particles in tobacco smoke contain different toxic substances that change the blood's ability to work in a healthy and normal manner. This can affect the placenta that feeds the baby.

Babies born to mothers who smoke are more likely to be born prematurely and with a low birth weight (below 2.5kg or 5lb 8oz). and have poorer lung function.

Are twice as likely to die from cot death. There seems to be a direct link between cot death and parents smoking.

Are more likely to get painful diseases such as inflammation of the middle ear and asthmatic bronchitis more frequently in early childhood.

Are more likely to become smokers themselves in later years.

Based on a text by Dr Erik Fangel Poulsen, specialist, and Martin Døssing, specialist 

COUNT THE KICKS

Empower Yourself in Pregnancy!

COUNT THE KICKS™ wants to empower Mums with knowledge and confidence during their pregnancy.

We want to encourage Mums to work with their Midwives and healthcare providers to promote a healthy outcome. Empowering every Mum with the confidence to call for advice if she is ever worried at all and be confident that she will receive the best advice and monitoring from her healthcare provider.

We aim to ensure Mums are aware of their health and well being throughout their pregnancy enabling them to provide their healthcare provider with accurate and specific information to assist them with an efficient, prompt support and quality of care.

Ensuring Mums also know the importance of monitoring their baby’s movements and offering Mums information to enable her to make INFORMED choices.

Please click here if you’d like to learn more about common conditions you may come across during your pregnancy, and the signs and symptoms to keep a look out for.

BabyBump by Alt12If you are a mobile phone user there are a number of “Baby Kick Count” applications you can download.

I recommend the BabyBump by Alt12 App which is available on multiple phones.

BabyBump is a comprehensive pregnancy app that keeps soon-to-be parents informed about their pregnancy progress and enables tracking and sharing the experience with family, friends and a community of moms around the world.

The Kick Count applications are usually free.